## PK_3950## Program description## Regression calculation## Index1. Introduction 1.1 Overview 2.1 Measured values file 4.1 Function and significance test 6. Problem solving and compatibility ## Appendix## 1. Introduction## 1.1 OverviewWith P&K 3950 we offer a PC program to carry out regression calculation according to VDI 3950 part 1 "Calibration of Automatic Emission Measuring Instruments" (1994-07) . Here, regression for linear, square, logarithmic and exponential functions are possible. An outliers test (according to Grubbs/guideline VDI 2449), independent of the regression calculation, is integrated in the program. Parameters, like statistical certainty are variable and therefore calculations according to the guideline VDI 2066 (dust measurements) are possible. Up to 200 data sets of measured values can be entered and commented on.
A numeric ASCII table with two columns can be provided in the data path. This
file must have the extension rgt . This file can be selected for opening under
" As described in the guidelines, the square formula will be tested (if requested) if it is significantly better than the formula of the first degree. The coefficients determined by the program can be replaced with other coefficients. Coefficients can be tested on a user defined basis , e.g. how numbers are rounded or a physical dependency. All characteristic values are derived from the users' coefficients. In addition, the function determined by the program can be displayed. In a query block, characteristically values on the curves can be
recalled, e.g. entering the X-value to receive the Y-values on all curves, or,
any Y-value to receive all other values. ## 1.2 InstallationTo install the program, execute setup program and choose the desired language (in the menu Options) after installation. The program can be started by executing ## 1.3 FilesThe parameters and the measurement data of a project are stored in a set of files with the same name but with different extensions. The project consists of one data file and one parameter file. The file menu makes functions available for all the necessary handling
of files or projects:
A set of files will be created by using the file menu. These files are
administered in the current data directory with a different extension and the
same name (the project name) :
RGT and RGP files are simple ASCII format text files (no Multibyte Characters). Their structures are described in the following paragraph. The files can be opened independently, thus a RGP file can easily become a template for other measurements, or ASCII files with the extension RGT can be imported. ## 1.4 Integrated help and documentationIn P&K 3950, a context-sensitive help is integrated. It can be
pulled up at any location in the form by pressing the function key "F1". In the
help screen, if necessary, highlighted cross references (links) are
interspersed, which, by clicking on them, provide more detailed information.
## 1.5 Operation within the formsIn den Bildschirmformularen erfolgen die Eingaben in Formularfeldern.
Mit den Tasten Reelle Zahlen können mit Punkt oder Komma oder auch als 1e-6
für 10 Gegebenenfalls (wenn im Formular gekennzeichnet) kann eine Auswahlliste von diskreten Eingabewerten geöffnet werden. Mit Mit Siehe auch: Calculator Available (non-standard) forms: - Measured values
- Text and colors of the symbols
- Regression
- Characteristics
- Result output
- Standard values
- Calculate standard state/state of operation
## 1.6 Operation within the tablesThe order and the width of all columns can be changed by clicking into a column header or between column headers and dragging as desired. This is practical if values are in a particular order, because Tab has to be pressed just once in order to reach the next column.
The buttons " Individual fields, in which a selection is possible, are marked yellow. To activate the selection click once in a cell in order to select this; click a second time in order to activate the selection (no doubleclick). With the cursor or Tab key, the focus can be moved between individual fields. The illustrated section can be scrolled one row up or down by moving the cursor across the upper or lower edge of the table form. Some tables can be sorted. With a right mouse button click into the considerable column, a Pull-Down Menu will be opened, and In some tables, a Row-Editor can be invoked. The Row-Editor shows one dataset only and can have more or less features then the grid dialog. Sometimes single Columns can be imported via the Popup Menu. From the selected file, the values are taken and written to the position, from which the dialog was invoked. One value will be read per line from an ASCII file (includes CSV format) . Some tables feature a search function. See Find in table See: Calculator and Alter Column Values. ## FilterThis feature allows to filter out a column with its value. Only rows with this value in the filtered column and not this column will be shown. The filter can be set to most of the columns (except when they are declared unique). All available column names are shown in the selector next to "Filter:". Once a column is selected, a corresponding value out of this column can be selected in the selector to the right of the equal sign. Filtering is accomplished on a text basis rather than on a value basis (e.g. 1.0 doesn't equal 1). Using the filter feature will reorder the rows. Only columns, which are not defined as unique, can be selected. Some table can be sorted (Right Mouse Button Click into the column of regard.) A filter might be active during import / export to exclude or include rows of data. ## Table Import and ExportIn most tables, data can be imported or exported with the buttons in the tool bar. The sequence of the columns and which columns are used, depends on the current column order and the current filter setting. With a button in the tool bar, a form can be opened which gives information about the current settings. Single Columns can be imported via the Popup Menu. From the selected file, the values are taken and written to the position, from which the dialog was invoked. One value will be read per line from an ASCII file (includes CSV format) . ## Available formats for import and export
The formats can be selected in the appropriate dialogs under the type of file. The filter function is switched off for other formats than CSV, TXT and *! ## PreviewThe tables can be viewed appealingly as an HTML-file by using the preview function. see Report function. ## 1.7 Operation within the graphicsSome dialogs can also be opened by clicking onto the axis, the legend, the title, the series or by double clicking the drawing area. ## ZoomingMost of the illustrations can be zoomed; therefore a rectangle has to be opened with the mouse from the upper left corner to the lower right corner. To reset the zoom, a rectangle from the lower right corner to the upper left corner has to be opened with the mouse. ## PanningThe graphic can be moved; therefore the graphic is to be dragged with the right mouse button down. ## Clipboard and Export FormatsIn the menu - In the Bitmap format, every pixel of the image is copied. This can be pasted in almost every program, but when scaling it, the results may be unsatisfactory.
- In Meta file format, lines are stored as vectors and are therefore scalable.
The graphic format can be set in ## Layout/SetupAlterations made in Modifications and settings in other forms or of the
calculated data can overwrite made changes in ## 2. Measured values## 2.1 Measured values fileA maximum of 200 data set of measured values are stored in a ASCII file. They can be modified or entered within the program. This file can be easily generated outside the program. The file has the extension RGT and has the following line by line structure: - C1-value (X-, Y-value or calculation value)
- C2-value (X-, Y-value or calculation value)
- Index for the symbol: 6 or 0 for the indicator for "deactivated" and 1-5 in the order shown in Symbols:
- C3-value (X-, Y-value or calculation value)
- T (temperature)
- P (pressure)
- F (dampness)
- O2-value
- Ps (static pressure at measuring location)
- B (defining text)
- D (date)
- t1 (start time)
- t2 (end time)
- dt (duration)
- C4, C5, C6 and C7 (X-, Y-value or calculation value)
The measured values are unformatted. They must be separated with spaces. A dot should be used as a decimal character, e.g. .99 0.99 9.9E-1. B, D, t1 and t2 are strings, they must be quoted in ' when empty or, when containing spaces. The table must consist of a minimum of two columns. For that the symbol
" x " (index = 1) is assumed. The combination C1, C2, S, {B}or C1, C2, C3, T,
P, F, {B} can be also read from the program. In any case, the total structure
will be written back into the file. ## 2.2 Measured values formThe form In the upper part of the form, the project title and axis information are to be entered (see below). These will appear in the diagram and in the list output. See the forms Measured values and
Column settings ## 2.3 Measured values list outputThe measured values can be listed under the menu option ## 2.4 SymbolsIn the form See: Text and colors of the symbols form
## 3. Outliers testFor individual measured values, an outliers test can be carried out with a two-sided level of significance of 95%, according to Grubbs, as documented in the guideline VDI 2449 part 1. A test value is calculated and compared with a critical table value. If the test value (PG) exceeds the critical table value, the measured value maybe eliminated only if an experimental reason for the outlier can be found. The test can be repeated with a reduced data collective, however, a maximum of up to two pairs may be eliminated in the boundary region and a maximum of one within the middle region. The data set can be eliminated by deactivation. The test is independent of the regression calculation. It supplies a log text, which can be copied into any document via the clipboard. If the outlier test is used in the form See: Measured values form ## 4. Regression calculationUnder the menu - for the determination of the analysis' coefficients
- for the calculation of the characteristics
- for the configuration of the graphic and text documentation
The calculations are based on the specifications in the guideline VDI 3950 part 1 of July 1994. In addition following sources were used: - HARTUNG, Statistik, Oldenbourg 1985
- HERRMANN, Satistik in C, Vieweg 1991
- VDI-guidelines, as mentioned in the text
## 4.1 Function and Significance testThe function is selected from a list. The coefficients are determined in accordance with conditions of the smallest deviation squares. With selection of the function f(x) or the button Criterion for the quality in that connection are the scatters, which are calculated according to the equations 5 (linear regression) and 27 (quadratic regression) of the guideline VDI 3950. The significance criterion at a confidence of 95 % provides the test value F from the table B4 of the guideline. Also the program supports logarithmic and exponential regressions in linear and quadratic form, but with some limitations. For user information several statistical characteristic quantities are shown in the Regression form and in the regression log. See: Regression form ## 4.2 Confidence and tolerance intervalThe confidence interval is the area in which a measured value with a
given statistical certainty "s" will be found. For a statistical confidence of
95% the The tolerance interval is the area in which future measurements are
prognosticated correctly to a given share (1-Gamma). For a share of 95% the
See: Regression form ## 4.3 Value inquiryBy entering of one of the values from the following list: - X-value
- Y-value (function value)
- Yv+ , Yv- (confidence interval)
- Yt+, Yt- (range of tolerance)
the remaining values in the list are calculated. See: Regression form ## 4.4 Additional data regression curveFunction, as well as confidence and tolerance interval, refer to user-defined coefficients when they are set. With a checkbox the additional representation of the data regression function is possible. Both functions are then of the same type. See: Regression form ## 4.5 Characteristics of the measuring systemIn a separate form This feature complies with the demands of 17. BimSchV. See: Characteristics form ## 4.6 LogThe log shows the documentation and explanations of the current calculation, as well as the output of a list with the columns: - X-value
- Y-value
- Y-value + - confidence interval
- Y-value + - tolerance interval
- n'
in equidistant steps, which are defined in the form
## 4.7 Layout of the outputThe section of the representing curve range can be determined for the X-axis as well as for the Y-axis. If the entry at "to" is not higher than at "from" the scale will be chosen automatically. The characteristic list in the log of the regression calculation extends using the same steps over the determined range. (If "Increment" is entered, then "Number of steps" will be calculated and vise versa.) The validity of the regression calculation extends over the scope of the input data. Deviating from this, the curves can be extended by extrapolation (for illustration) beyond this area. In addition to the primary X-scale a secondary X-scale can be defined (e.g. the extinction in the dust concentration measurement according to VDI 2066). Therefore, a range of the second X-scale is mapped to the range ("from", "to") of the primary X-scale. This additional X-scale must be provided for activation with unit and name. The graphic can be covered with a grid for better readability. See: Result output form ## 5. Outputs (report)The graphics, lists and logs can be printed using the windows system and the devices connected to it, or copied to the preferred program via the clipboard. For the graphic, a bitmap or a meta file can be copied. With bitmap every pixel of the image is copied. When scaling it, the results may be unsatisfactory. In meta files, however, lines are stored as vectors and therefore scalable. The graphics can also be exported in different file formats at The reports are produced in HTML-format and left in the data directory.
The report files then have the name of the project with the extension HTML and
GIF. Of course, these documents can be modified with almost every text
processing program, though you should be aware that this documents can be
overwritten by the program easily by mistake. The structure of the report can
be modified in the form In case the HTML-Layout needs to be modified, so called stylesheets can
be used. The entry Other used HTML-Elements are:
A sample of a very compact formatting in the Standard settings form: <STYLE> p,td,th { font-size:6pt; line-height:7pt; font-family:Verdana; } h2 { font-size:9pt; line-height:10pt; font-family:Verdana; } h3 { font-size:7pt; line-height:8pt; font-family:Verdana; } h4 { font-size:7pt; line-height:8pt; font-family:Verdana; margin-top:0; } table {border:2px solid red; border-spacing:0px;border-collapse:collapse; margin-bottom:0; } </STYLE> The illustration of the tables can be controlled with e.g. the entry
There are two values in ## 6. Problem solving and compatibility
When not satisfied with the axes label format, one can insert a format
definition in the file p&k.ini, which can be found in the program
directory. The line "AxisValuesFormat=0.######" means, the decimal dot is to be
shown, the leading zero is to be shown and a maximum of 6 digits of the
fraction. The line "AxisValuesFormat=#,###.###" will show the comma when the
value exceeds 1000, no leading zeros, a decimal dot and a maximum of 3 digits
of the fraction. The quotation marks are not to be inserted. | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

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